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Lockheed  fa-70  Panther 2  Adaptive Camouflag by bagera3005 Lockheed  fa-70  Panther 2  Adaptive Camouflag by bagera3005

BAE Systems to Unveil Adaptive Camouflage Cloak for Combat Vehicles at DSEi



BAE Systems has recently tested an ‘invisibility cloak’ that allows a vehicle to blend into its surroundings, effectively becoming invisible to thermal imaging systems. The company will debut its new technology at the DSEi defense and security expo in London next week.

The system called ‘ADAPTIV’ was developed and patented in Sweden, it operates over infra-red and other frequencies. ADAPTIV can instantly blend the vehicle into the background, reducing detection range below 500 meters. Furthermore, the new technology can also mimic natural objects and other vehicles, and offer cooperative Interrogator Friend/Foe (IFF) capability by displaying distinctive patterns visible only at certain spectral range or in response to an interrogation signal (for example, illumination by coded laser designation).

ADAPTIV can instantly blend a combat vehicle into the background, reducing detection range below 500 meters. Photo: BAE Systems,

The system combines sheets of lightweight, hexagonal metallic ‘pixels’ designed to change temperature very rapidly presenting a thermal pattern that optimally blends with its surrounding. Each electrically powered pixel is individually heated or cooled using commercially available semi-conducting technology.

The system combines sheets of lightweight, hexagonal metallic 'pixels' designed to change temperature very rapidly presenting a thermal pattern that optimally blends with its surrounding. Alternatively, it can mimic another vehicle or display identification tags, reducing the risk of fratricide. Photos: BAE Systems

The pattern is determined by an on-board computer feeding from on-board cameras that pick up the background scenery. The system allows even a moving tank to match its surroundings. Alternatively, it can mimic another vehicle or display identification tags, reducing the risk of fratricide.

Project manager, Peder Sjölund explains: “Earlier attempts at similar cloaking devices have hit problems because of cost, excessive power requirements or because they were insufficiently robust. Our panels can be made so strong that they provide useful armor protection and consume relatively low levels of electricity, especially when the vehicle is at rest in ‘stealth reconnaissance’ mode and generator output is low.”

Trials by BAE Systems in mid-July showed that one side of a CV90 could be made effectively invisible or appear to be other objects, including a 4×4 vehicle, when viewed in the infra-red spectrum.”We can resize the pixels to achieve stealth for different ranges.” Sjölund added, “A warship or building, for instance, might not need close-up stealth, so could be fitted with larger panels.” Earlier this year the British media reported about another adaptive camouflage program pursued by BAE Systems, utilizing a kind of electronic ink, to ‘paint’ the background image on the vehicle’s surface.

Current work focuses mainly on the infra-red spectrum, as this is most important to the Swedish Defence Materiel Administration (FMV), which funds part of the work. However, BAE Systems engineers have combined the pixels with other technologies, which provide camouflage in other parts of the electro-magnetic spectrum at the same time to provide all-round stealth, which will be developed further over the next few years.

Combat vehicle protection technologies have evolved dramatically in recent years, moving far beyond traditional ballistic and blast protection, spanning into ‘hit avoidance’ through the use of countermeasures and active protection and signature management, eliminating part of the risk by avoiding detection or target acquisition by enemy weapon systems. Part of the trend of signature management is the use of advanced camouflage, hiding the protected vehicle from visible observation (by advanced camouflage materials) and imaging systems, particularly thermal imagers, which provide the core for most of the modern automated engagement systems (including target acquisition systems and missile seekers).

A similar system is also under development in israel – ‘Invisible Reactive Armor Protection (IRAP)’ utilizing the ‘Blax Fox’ thermal camouflage system from Eltics and IMI’s hybrid armor technology. In the U.S., DARPA and the U.S. Army research and development center have pursued similar capabilities for future spirals of the ‘Manned Ground Vehicle’ – the core maneuver element of the now terminated Future Combat System.

FA-70 panther 2

Air superiority fighter
Stealth Interceptor, air superiority and multirole combat aircraft
General characteristics

Program cost US$66.7 billion
Unit cost US$250 million

* Crew: 2 (Pilot and Radar Intercept Officer)
* Length: 72 ft 5 in
* Wingspan: 52 ft 8 in
* Height: 15 ft 11 in
* Wing area: 1000 ft²
* Empty weight: 30,000 lb
* Loaded weight: 60,600 lb
* Max takeoff weight: 65,000 lb
* Powerplant: 2× G Pratt & Whitney YF220 , 65,000 lbf

Performance

* Maximum speed: Mach 8.6 (mph = 6 546.38064 m2 / s2, 2 926.494 m2 / s km/h) at altitude
* Cruise speed: Mach 3.4+ est. (mph = 2 588.10397 m3 / s2) 1 156.986 m2 / s+ km/h) hypercruise at altitude
* Combat radius: 900-520 mi[15] (1448.4096 nmi, 1.448.4096 km)
* Service ceiling: 95,000 ft (28.95600m)
* Wing loading: 70 lb/ft² (456 kg/m²;)

# Secondary Powerplant: 1× General Electric/Rolls-Royce F136 afterburning turbofan, >40,000 lbf (178 kN) [in development]
# Lift fan (STOVL): 1× Rolls-Royce LiftSystem driven from either F135 or F136 power plant, 18,000 lbf (80 kN)
# Internal fuel: 35.00 IB

Armament

* Guns: 2 × GAU-22/A 25 mm (0.984 in) cannon in internal mounted
* Hardpoints: 4× external pylons on wings with a capacity of 40,000 lb ( internal mounted on Rotary Launcher Assembly (RLA)
* Missiles: 12 loud to 24
*Internal: 12 air-to-air missiles, or 16 air-to-air missiles and 24 air-to-ground weapons.
* External: 14 air-to-air missiles, or 4 air-to-ground weapons and 2 to 4 air-to-air missiles [40] with combinations for the following missiles:
*2x Rear-defence 10 ronds gided sabo


   Missiles:
       Air-to-air missiles:
           AIM-120 AMRAAM
           AIM-9X Sidewinder
           IRIS-T
           MBDA Meteor (pending further funding)
       Air-to-surface missiles:
           AGM-88 AARGM
           AGM-158 JASSM
           Brimstone missile / MBDA SPEAR
           Joint Air-to-Ground Missile
           Storm Shadow missile
           SOM
       Anti-ship missiles:
           JSM
           LRASM
   Bombs:
       Mark 84, Mark 83 and Mark 82 GP bombs
       Mk.20 Rockeye II cluster bomb
       Wind Corrected Munitions Dispenser capable
       Paveway series laser-guided bombs
       Small Diameter Bomb (SDB)
       JDAM series
       B61 nuclear bomb
       AGM-154 JSOW
     GBU-50 crusher

Avionics:

   Northrop Grumman Electronic Systems AN/APG-81 AESA radar
   Lockheed Martin AAQ-40 E/O Targeting System (EOTS)
   Northrop Grumman Electronic Systems AN/AAQ-37 Distributed Aperture System (DAS) missile warning system
   BAE Systems AN/ASQ-239 (Barracuda) electronic warfare system
   Harris Corporation Multifunction Advanced Data Link (MADL) communication system

AN/APG-81

The AN/APG-81 is an Active Electronically Scanned Array (AESA) designed by Northrop Grumman Electronic Systems for the F-35 Lightning II.
The Joint Strike Fighter AN/APG-81 AESA radar is a result of the US government's competition for the world's largest AESA acquisition contract. Westinghouse Electronic Systems (acquired by Northrop Grumman in 1996) and Hughes Aircraft (acquired by Raytheon in 1997) received contracts for the development of the Multifunction Integrated RF System/Multifunction Array (MIRFS/MFA) in February 1996. Lockheed Martin and Northrop Grumman were selected as the winners of the Joint Strike Fighter competition; The System Development and Demonstration (SDD) contract was announced on 26 October 2001.
The AN/APG-81 is a successor radar to the F-22's AN/APG-77. Over 3,000 AN/APG-81 AESA radars are expected to be ordered for the F-35, with production to run beyond 2035, and including large quantities of international orders. As of August 2007, 8 APG-81s have already been produced and delivered. The first three blocks of radar software have been developed, flight tested, and delivered ahead of schedule by the Northrop Grumman Corporation. Capabilities of the AN/APG-81 include the AN/APG-77's air-to-air modes plus advanced air-to-ground modes including high resolution mapping, multiple ground moving target detection and track, combat identification, electronic warfare, and ultra high bandwidth communications. The current F-22 production radar is the APG-77v1, which draws heavily on APG-81 hardware and software for its advanced air-to-ground capabilities.[2]
In August 2005, the APG-81 radar was flown for the first time aboard Northrop Grumman's BAC 1-11 airborne laboratory. Since then, the radar system has accumulated over 300 flight hours, maturing all five blocks of software. The first radar flight on Lockheed Martin's CATBird avionics test bed aircraft took place in November 2008. Announced on 6/22/10: The radar met and exceeded its performance objectives successfully tracking long-range targets as part of the first mission systems test flights of the F-35 Lightning II BF-4 aircraft.[3]
The AN/APG-81 team won the 2010 David Packard Excellence in Acquisition Award for performance against jammers.

The Lockheed Martin Sniper Advanced Targeting Pod (ATP), designated AN/AAQ-33 in U.S. Military Service, provides positive target identification, autonomous tracking, coordinate generation, and precise weapons guidance from extended standoff ranges. The Sniper ATP is used on the F-15E Strike Eagle, F-16 Fighting Falcon, A-10 Thunderbolt II aircraft, B-1 (Rod Pod), UK Harrier GR9,.[1] and Canadian CF-18 Hornet. [2] The Sniper ATP is in service with Norway, Oman, Poland, Singapore, Canada, Belgium, Turkey, Saudi Arabia[3] and the UK MoD.[4][5] In July 2007, Sniper ATP was acquired by Pakistan, making it the tenth country in the world to be in possession of the Sniper pod.[6] The Sniper ATP contains a laser designator and tracker for guiding laser-guided bombs. The pod also features a third-generation FLIR receiver and a CCD television camera. FLIR allows observation and tracking in low light / no light situations, while the CCD camera allows the same functions during day time operations.
A team of Lockheed Martin UK, BAE Systems and SELEX Galileo (formerly Selex S&AS) has successfully demonstrated and flown a Sniper ATP on board a Tornado GR4 combat aircraft.
The U.S. Air Force initial seven-year contract for Sniper ATP has potential value in excess of $843 million. The Sniper ATP has delivered over 125 pods and the U.S. Air Force plans to procure at least 522 Sniper ATPs.
PANTHER is the export equivalent to the Lockheed Martin Sniper Extended Range (XR) targeting pod.

Multifunction Advanced Data Link (MADL) is a future data waveform to provide secure data-linking technology between stealth aircraft. It began as a method to coordinate between F-35 aircraft (the Joint Strike Fighter), but HQ Air Combat Command wants to expand the capabiltiy to coordinate future USAF strike forces of all AF stealth aircraft, including the B-2, F-22, and unmanned systems. MADL is expected to provide needed throughput, latency, frequency-hopping and anti-jamming capability with phased Array Antenna Assemblies (AAAs) that send and receive tightly directed radio signals.[1]
The Office of the Undersecretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology and Logistics directed the Air Force and Navy to integrate MADL among the F-22, F-35 and B-2, to one another and to the rest of network.

Helmet Mounted hud



The FA-70 need not be physically pointing at its target for weapons to be successful. This is possible because of sensors that can track and target a nearby aircraft from any orientation, provide the information to the pilot through his helmet (and therefore visible no matter which way they are looking), and provide the seeker-head of a missile with sufficient information. Recent missile types provide a much greater ability to pursue a target regardless of the launch orientation, called "High Off-Boresight" capability, although the speed and direction in which the munition is launched affect the effective range of the weapon. Sensors use combined radio frequency and infra red (SAIRST) to continually track nearby aircraft while the pilot's helmet-mounted display system (HMDS) displays and selects targets. The helmet system replaces the display suite-mounted head-up display used in earlier fighters.
the FA-70's systems provide the edge in the "observe, orient, decide, and act" OODA loop; stealth and advanced sensors aid in observation (while being difficult to observe), automated target tracking helps in orientation, sensor fusion simplifies decision making, and the aircraft's controls allow action against targets without having to look away from them.
The problems with the current Vision Systems International helmet mounted display led Lockheed Martin to issue a draft specification for proposals for an alternative on 1 March 2011.[199] The alternative system will be based on Anvis-9 night vision goggles. It will be supplied by BAE systems.[201] The BAE system does not include all the features of the VSI helmet and is currently intended only for use during the testing program. In 2011, Lockheed granted VSI a contract to fix the vibration, jitter, night-vision and sensor display problems in their helmet mounted display. The improved displays are expected to be delivered in third quarter of 2013

Helmet Mounted Sight
The Helmet Mounted Sight (HMS) or Display (HMD) is a relatively recent addition to the fighter cockpit. The first devices in this category emerged during the late seventies, as an aid to targeting second generation heatseeking missiles. Given the limitations of both sight and missile technology of that period, the HMS slipped into obscurity for several years, only to be resurrected with the advent of fourth generation heatseeking missiles (WVR AAMs). At this time the HMS and newer, more capable HMDs are seeing a resurgence in the marketplace and can now be expected to become a standard feature in the cockpit of any new build fighter aircraft.
The fundamental idea behind all HMD/HMS designs is that of using the pilot's Eyeball Mk.1 as a cueing device to direct a missile seeker at a target, to facilitate a rapid lock and missile shot. This was not a very strong requirement with second and third generation heatseeking missiles, since the capable Air Intercept (AI) radars which proliferated with the teen series (and teenski series) fighters typically had several dogfighting modes which were designed to rapidly acquire and track a target. The missile seekers were "slaved" to the antenna boresight, and thus once the radar locked on to the target the missile seekers would also lock very shortly thereafter. Each missile would be fed with an elevation and azimuth signal produced by the radar, and these signals would be used to steer the missile seeker direction relative to the airframe.
When the first fourth generation missiles appeared, the Soviet Vympel R-73 (AA-11 Archer) and shortly thereafter the Israeli Rafael Python 4, it was clearly apparent that with very large off boresight angles, typically in excess of 60 degrees of arc, the AI intercept radar would no longer be adequate. The reason was simple, in that most antennas could not be easily slewed to angles beyond about 60 degrees. Space under radomes was limited, radome designs not optimised for beam quality at large off-boresight angles, gimbal design limits and servomotor slew rates all contributed to this situation. Last but not least, the cost of retrofitting large numbers of radars would not be trivial. And with the latest fourth generation missiles, like the AIM-132 ASRAAM, the missile itself could be fired over the shoulder at targets in the aft hemisphere. Therefore the HMS idea was resurrected.

Fly-By-Light

The Fly-By-Light Advanced System Hardware (FLASH) program is developing and demonstrating dual use fly-by-light hardware for flight control systems on military and commercial aircraft. Under the transport aircraft portion of this program, we and our industry teammates are demonstrating two representative fly-by-light systems. These fly-by-light demonstrations include a ground demonstration of a partial primary flight control system and a flight demonstration of an aileron trim control system. This paper describes these and discusses the dual use fly-by-light hardware developed for transport aircraft as well as the associated FLASH program demonstrations.


Adaptive Camouflage
Lightweight optoelectronic systems built around advanced image sensors and display panels have been proposed for making selected objects appear nearly transparent and thus effectively invisible. These systems are denoted "adaptive camouflage" because unlike traditional camouflage, they would generate displays that would change in response to changing scenes and lighting conditions. Fa-70 use 3 Generation based off of snake skin design


Gloved Close-coupled canard

In the close-coupled canard, the foreplane is located just above and forward of the main wing. At high angles of attack the canard surface directs airflow downwards over the wing, reducing turbulence which results in reduced drag and increased lift
Pratt & Whitney YF220pw-200
Scram-LACE

Scramjet


are mechanically very similar to ramjets. Like a ramjet, they consist of an inlet, a combustor, and a nozzle. The primary difference between ramjets and scramjets is that scramjets do not slow the oncoming airflow to subsonic speeds for combustion, they use supersonic combustion instead. The name "scramjet" comes from "supersonic combusting ramjet." Since scramjets use supersonic combustion they can operate at speeds above Mach 6 where traditional ramjets are too inefficient. Another difference between ramjets and scramjets comes from how each type of engine compresses the oncoming air flow: while the inlet provides most of the compression for ramjets, the high speeds at which scramjets operate allow them to take advantage of the compression generated by shock waves, primarily oblique shocks.[20]
Very few scramjet engines have ever been built and flown. In May 2010 the Boeing X-51 set the endurance record for the longest scramjet burn at over 200 seconds.[21]

Precooled jets / LACE

Intake air is chilled to very low temperatures at inlet in a heat exchanger before passing through a ramjet and/or turbojet and/or rocket engine. Easily tested on ground. Very high thrust/weight ratios are possible (~14) together with good fuel efficiency over a wide range of airspeeds, Mach 0-5.5+; this combination of efficiencies may permit launching to orbit, single stage, or very rapid, very long distance intercontinental travel. Exists only at the lab prototyping stage. Examples include RB545, Reaction Engines SABRE, ATREX. Requires liquid hydrogen fuel which has very low density and requires heavily insulated tankage.

AN/AAQ-40

The Electro-optical Targeting System (EOTS) is an affordable, high-performance, lightweight, multi-functional system for precision air-to-air and air-to-surface targeting. The low-drag, stealthy EOTS is integrated into the Lightning II's fuselage with a durable sapphire window and is linked to the aircraft's integrated central computer through a high-speed fiber-optic interface.

The EOTS uses a staring mid-wave 3rd-generation forward-looking infrared that provides superior target detection and identification at greatly increased standoff ranges. EOTS also provides high-resolution imagery, automatic tracking, infrared search and track, laser designation and rangefinding and laser spot tracking. As the world’s first and only system that shares a Sniper Advanced Targeting Pod and IRST systems legacy, it provides high reliability and efficient two-level maintenance.

Internal mounted on Rotary Launcher Assembly

Each weapons bay is equipped with a rotary launcher and two bomb-rack assemblies. In tests, the FA-70 successfully released B-61  nuclear and mk84 conventional missiles an bombs  from the rotary rocket launcher, and  Aim-120  and aim 188 ADRAM conventional weapons from the missile an bomb racks. The B61-12 is an earth-penetrating nuclear bomb for use against deeply buried and hardened targets. The B61  is a strategic free-fall nuclear bomb.

                                                                 Rotary Launcher Assembly

                                                         weapons louds



PGU-23/U TP
PGU-20/U API
PGU-25/U HEI PGU-23/U TP
PGU-20/U API
PGU-25/U HEI PGU-23/U TP
PGU-20/U API
PGU-25/U HEI
Stations internal weapon bays
12 AIM-120C AMRAAM or
10 AIM-132 ASRAAM and

2 AGM-154 JSOW or
2 Brimstone or
2 GBU-12 Paveway LGB or
2 GBU-31/32/38 JDAM or
8 GBU-39 SDB or
2 CBU-87/89 CBU or
2 CBU-103/104/105 WCMD internal weapon bays
2 AIM-120C AMRAAM or
2 AIM-132 ASRAAM and

2 AGM-154 JSOW or
2 Brimstone or
2 GBU-12 Paveway LGB or
2 GBU-31/32/38 JDAM or
8 GBU-39 SDB or
2 CBU-87/89 CBU or
2 CBU-103/104/105 WCMD
12 AIM-120C AMRAAM or
12 AIM-132 ASRAAM and

5 AGM-154 JSOW or
6 Brimstone or
4GBU-12 Paveway LGB or
4 GBU-31/32/38 JDAM or
8 GBU-39 SDB or
12 CBU-87/89 CBU or
12 CBU-103/104/105 WCMD
2 under-wing missiles
4 AIM-9X Sidewinder or
4 AIM-120B/C AMRAAM 4 under-wing missiles
2 AIM-9X Sidewinder or
2 AIM-120B/C AMRAAM 4 under-wing missiles
2 AIM-9X Sidewinder or
2 AIM-120B/C AMRAAM
24  hardpoints
AGM-65 Maverick
AGM-88 HARM
AGM-158 JASSM
Storm Shadow
GBU-10/12/16/24 LGB
GBU-31 JDAM
Mk 82/83/84 GP
CBU-99/100 Rockeye II
transport pods 4 hardpoints
AGM-65 Maverick
AGM-88 HARM
AGM-158 JASSM
Storm Shadow
GBU-10/12/16/24 LGB
GBU-31 JDAM
Mk 82/83/84 GP
CBU-99/100 Rockeye II
transport pods 4 hardpoints
AGM-65 Maverick
AGM-88 HARM
AGM-158 JASSM
Storm Shadow
GBU-10/12/16/24 LGB
GBU-31 JDAM
Mk 82/83/84 GP
CBU-99/100 Rockeye II
transport pods


Multifunction Advanced Data Link (MADL) is a future data waveform to provide secure data-linking technology between stealth aircraft. It began as a method to coordinate between F-35 aircraft (the Joint Strike Fighter), but HQ Air Combat Command wants to expand the capabiltiy to coordinate future USAF strike forces of all AF stealth aircraft, including the B-2, F-22, and unmanned systems. MADL is expected to provide needed throughput, latency, frequency-hopping and anti-jamming capability with phased Array Antenna Assemblies (AAAs) that send and receive tightly directed radio signals.[1] MADL uses the Ku band.

FA-70  EOTS

The Office of the Undersecretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology and Logistics directed the Air Force and NaF-35 Lightning II EOTS
The Electro-Optical Targeting System (EOTS) is the world’s first and only sensor
that combines forward-looking infrared (FLIR) and infrared search and track (IRST)
functionality. It provides the Warfighter with an affordable, high-performance, lightweight,
multi-functional system for precision air-to-air and air-to-surface tracking in a compact
package. The pilot has access to high-resolution imagery, automatic tracking, IRST, laser
designation and rangefinding and laser spot tracking at greatly increased standof
f ranges.
Integrated into the F-35 Lightning II’s fuselage with a durable sapphire window, the
low-drag, stealthy EOTS is linked to the aircraft’s central computer through a high-speed
fiber-optic interfacevy to integrate MADL among the F-22, F-35 and B-2, to one another and to the rest of network.


Features
• Rugged, low-profile, faceted window for
supersonic, low-observable performance
• Compact single aperture design
• Lightweight (<200 lbs), including
window assembly
• Advanced, third-generation, focal plane
array
• Air-to-surface FLIR tracker and air-to-air
IRST modes
• Modular design for two-level
maintenance to reduce life cycle cost
• Automatic boresight and aircraft
alignment
• Tactical and eye-safe diode pumped laser
• Laser spot tracker
• Passive and active ranging
• Highly accurate geo-coordinate
generation to meet precision strike
requirements




The Advanced Concept Ejection Seat (ACES) was designed to be rugged and lightweight compared to earlier systems. It also was designed to be easy to maintain and updatable. It includes the following features:

   Electronic Sequencing and timing
   Mortar-deployed main chute
   Auto sensing of egress conditions
   Parachute reefing to control opening at all speed ranges
   Multi-Mode operation for optimum recovery of the crewman

The ACES II is a third-generation seat, capable of ejecting a pilot from zero-zero conditions up to maximum altitude and airspeeds in the 600 KEAS range. The peak catapult accelleration is about 12gz. The ACES II has three main operating modes, one each for the low speed/low altitude, medium speed, and high speed/high altitude. In Mode 1, which includes 0-0 up to 250kts, the parachute is inflating in less than two seconds. In Mode 2 the chute is inflating in less than 6 seconds. Mode 2 is effective up to the maximum rated speed of the seat. Mode 3 deployment is delayed by the sequencer until the seat-man package reaches either Mode 2, or Mode 1 conditions, whichever comes first. Primarily, Mode 3 refers to operation above 15000 feet where separation from the seat would result in disconnection from the emergency oxygen, and also possible lead to more severe opening shock of the parachute due to differing atmospheric conditions.

Seat modes are selected by the sequencer based on atmospheric conditions, and the modes vary depending on differences in the conditions such as apparent airspeed and apparent altitude.

A light-weight crewman would reach an apogee of close to 200 feet if they ejected at ground level with zero airspeed. Typical performance is as follows:

Aircraft Attitude Velocity
Knots Altitude
Required
0-Deg Pitch, 60-Deg Roll* 120 0
0-Deg Pitch, 180-Deg Roll 150 150
0-Deg Pitch, 0-Deg Roll 150 116
10,000-FPM Sink Rate
-60-Deg Pitch, 0-Deg Roll 200 335
-30-Deg Pitch, 0-Deg Roll 450 497
-60-Deg Pitch, 60-Deg Roll 200 361
-45-Deg Pitch, 180-Deg Roll 250 467
* For this case, impact occurs at the instant the
seat and aircraft are separated. In all other cases,
conditions are at initiation of the catapult rocket.

The seat structure is primarily aluminum alloy stamp formed with ridges for structural strength. The box-like structure is refered to as a monocoque construction. The back section which is nominally 16 inches wide has a set of three rollers on each side which interface with the extruded aluminum rails in the cockpit. These rails are identical to the rails used for Escapac seats (also a Douglas Aircraft {McDonnell-Douglas} product). The seat bucket is wider with a maximum width of 20 inches. The seat itself weighs approximately 127 pounds in most versions, with the rocket-catapult weighing 21LBs. The propulsion is a CKU-5/A/A rocket-catapult which uses a conventional solid propellant catapult charge to start seat movement, and a solid-propellant rocket motor to sustain the movement. The rocket motor is ignited at the end of the catapult stroke as the seat leaves the aircraft. The rocket-catapult is attatched to the seat at the headrest end and to the cockpit at the base via a twin-barrel linear actuator which provides for seat height adjustment. The nominal adjustment range is +2.5-inch vertical adjustment. The actuator is attatched at the fixed base to the cockpit structure and at the upper end via twin screw barrels to the base of the rocket-catapult. I have recently recieved information that the CKU-5/A/A is being phased out and replaced with the more environmentally friendly propellent version known as the CKU-5/B.

Seat functions are normally activated by the Recovery Sequencing Subsytem which consists of the environmental sensing unit , and the recovery sequencing unit, an electronic box located inside the seat rear on the right hand side. The environmental sensing unit consists of two altitude compensated dynamic pressure transducers, and two static pressure transducers. The dynamic pressure sensors (pitot tubes) are located on or near the headrest and read the air pressure as the seat exits the aircraft. The pressure differential between them and the ambient (static) sensors behind the seat is compared by the recovery sequencing unit to determine what operating mode the sequencer should select. The sequencer is fully redundant with two thermal batteries, two electrical systems, and an individual bridge wire from each in each of the electro-explosive squibs. The thermal batteries are activated by hot gas bled off from the catapult firing. There is a small window on the right side of the seat back to check the batteries for signs that they have been fired.

Firing of the seat is normally by pulling one of the ejection control handles mounted on the seat bucket sides. (On ACES seats fitted to F-16s and F-22s the ejection control handle is located in the center of the front of the seat bucket) The side pull handles are mechanically linked so that raising one will lift the other as well. Raising the handles actuates a pair of initiators via mechanical linkages. See below for the basic sequence of events that follows. On the F-16 the center pull handle rotates a bellcrank to pull the pair of linkages visible in this picture to withdraw the sears from both initiators. This seat was fired, and the sears are seen dangling from the linkages. In the left of the picture is the spring which provides the resistance to the pull making it about a 40-50 lb pull. On the right side of the picture is the linkage from the safety handle which locks the bellcrank mechanism.


One particularly unique feature to the ACES II is the STAPAC package. STAPAC is a vernier rocket motor mounted under the seat near the rear. It is mounted on a tilt system controlled by a basic pitch-rate gyro system. This system is designed to help solve one of the great problems inherent to ejection seat systems. Center of mass/Center of gravity is extremely important in terms of keeping the thrust of the booster rocket from inducing a tumble. Rocket nozzles for the main boost of a seat are aligned to provide thrust through the nominal center of gravity of the seat-man package. The STAPAC provides a counter force to prevent extreme pitching in cases where the CG is off by up to +2 inches. This picture displays a F-16 ACES II from below. The STAPAC is visible as is the seat separation rocket on the left side. The seat is resting on its front and a pair of ground handling skids are mounted on the seat sides. The yellow flag is a safety pin preventing accidental firing of the STAPAC. The white colored lines are from the sequencer, and the twin firing initator cartridges are visible at the lower front with the black pyrotechnic lines leading from them.

Another unusual feature is related to the survival kit. In most ejection seats the survival kit is a rigid fiberglass box that makes up the seat inside the seat bucket. The ACES II survival kit is a soft pack that is stored under a fiberglass seat lid that is hinged at the front. When the pilot separates from the seat, the straps that connect him to the survival kit lift the seat lid up and forward. The seat kit then slips free from the rear end. The seat lid is latched in place normally, and released at seat separation when the Restraint Release Cartridge fires and rotates a bellcrank that releases the seat lid, shoulder harnesses, lap belt, and chute mortar disconnect. On the front of the seat bucket is a port that allows the crewmember to select the operation mode of the URT-33C survival beacon. The port also has a switch that allows the crewman to select automatic deployment of the seat kit, or manual deployment. For the URT-33C beacon, in the AUTO mode, the beacon would activate at man-seat separation. (For maintainance, a equipment release knob is located at the top rear of the right side of the seat bucket.)

The Inertia Reel Harness Assembly is located in the center of the seat back just below the headrest. The inertia reel fulfills two functions: (1) it acts like the shoulder belt in a car, restraining the pilot against a 2gx forward (-x) motion. (2) upon ejection, it retracts the pilot to an upright posture to minimize the possibility of spinal damage due to spinal misallignment upon catapult ignition. On the left side of the seat bucket there is a handle which allows the crew member to manually lock the reel prior to intense manuvers or landing to prevent possible injuries.

The Drogue System consists of a hemisflo chute, a small extraction chute, and the Drogue Mortar. The drogue mortar is fired in Mode 2 and Mode 3 to slow and stabilize the seat-man package. This is intended to prevent or limit the injuries to the crewmember as he/she is exposed to the windblast after exiting the aircraft. The mortar fires a 1.2 Lb slug of metal that draws the extraction chute out which by means of a lanyard deploys the drogue chute. The extraction chute is packed in a small wedge-shaped container on the upper left rear of the seat covered with metalized fabric. The lanyard is also covered in the metalized fabric. The drogue mortar is below this, and the drogue is packed in the metal covered box below this. The lid to the drogue is retained by a small plunger unit that is held in place by machining on the slug and released when the mortar fires. The drogue bridles are attached on either side of the seat. Many of these features are visible in this pictureThe bridles are wrapped around a set of rods and are cut by a set of pyrotechnic cutters when the sequencer determines that it is time to jettison the drogues prior to main chute deployment.


The seat is safed by means of a Safety Lever on the left side of the seat bucket which prevents the seat from being fired when the lever is in the up/forward position. When it is down/back flat against the side of the bucket, it allows the seat to be fired. The picture shows a F-16 handle in the Safe position. This picture shows a fired seat with the handle in the armed position. Note the firing handle is pulled out and resting on the seat cushion. The small tab on the handle engages a microswitch in the hole in the seat bucket side to electrically report to the aircraft the arming state of the seat.

The Emergency Manual Chute Handle is located on the right hand side of the seat bucket, and functions to fire the main chute mortar and initiate seat separation in case of failure of the electronic sequencer. Unlike other seats, the manual chute handle is inhibited in the aircraft and prevents the systems from functioning while the seat is still in the rails. In the event of ground egress, the crewman would have to unstrap the two shoulder harness connections, the two seat kit connections and the lap belt prior to egressing the aircraft. Given the 0-0 capability of the seat, in any case requiring extremely rapid egress, ejection would be a viable alternative. In early seats this function did not include the mortar cartridge and the handle was labled 'Restraint Emergency Release'. Pulling it would unlatch the same items, but relied on the pilot chute in the headrest to deploy the main parachute. The recommended procedure was to pull the handle with the right hand and push up on the pitot tube extensions with the left for more positive extension. On seats like the B-1B which had folding pitot tubes this was not an option, and the additional mortar cartridge was added. This picture shows both handles, the early one from a fired seat, the second from a live seat, showing the safety pin installation as well.


The emergency oxygen system consists of an oxygen bottle attached to the seat back, an automatic activation lanyard, and a manual pull ring (the green ring visible on the left hand seat pan side in this picture). As the seat rises up the rails, the lanyard activates the oxygen bottle and allows the crewman access to oxygen as long as he is still connected to the seat. During an in-flight emergency that does not require ejection, the oxygen bottle provides breathable air for enough time to return the aircraft to 10000 feet or below where the atmosphere is thick enough for the pilot to breath.

ACES II Event/Time Sequence
Typical Event Mode 1 Mode 2 Mode 3
Rocket-Catapult Fires 0.0 0.0 0.0
Drogue Deploys Note 2 0.17 0.17
STAPAC Ignites 0.18 0.18 0.18
Parachute Deploys 0.20 1.17 Note 1
Drogue Releases from seat Note 2 1.32 Note 1
Seat Releases from Crewman 0.45 1.42 Note 1
Parachute Inflates 1.8 2.8 Note 1
Survival Kit Deploys 5.5 6.3 Note 1
Note 1: In Mode 3 the sequence delays until the conditions drop below the Mode 3 boundry, then the parachute deploys after a 1.0 second delay.
Note 2: Drogue Chute is not deployed in Mode 1 Ejections, but the drogue line cutters will fire to make sure.
Note 3: The info in this table is for the F-15/F-16/F-117. Other seats have slightly different timings.

ACES II Explosives
Mechanical and Electro-explosive
(2) JAU-8/A25 Ejection Initiatiors for the left and right ejection control handles.
(1) Inertia Reel Gas Initiator which provides ballistic pressure to propel grease into the inertia reel that locks the pilot back into the seat upon ejection.
(1) Pitch Stabilization and Control Assy (STAPAC) which includes a gas grain generator and a vernier rocket which is ignited by the #2 P-lead from the Recovery Sequencer. This STAPAC is used to stabilize and correct for the pitch axis of the seat during a MODE 1 (low and slow) ejection. The STAPAC fires in all modes of ejection.
(1) Drogue Gun Cartridge for the drogue gun. This cartridge fires the drogue gun which propels a 1.2 pound slug into the airstream and to deploy the extraction chute, and eventually the hemisflow drogue chute, to slow down and stabilize the ejection seat during a MODE 2 or 3 high speed ejection. This drogue gun is fired from electrical voltage provided to P-3 from the Recovery Sequencer.
(2) Mortar Disconnect Assy. Cartridges fired by the #4 P-lead (primary cartridge) and P-11 from the emergency power supply (secondary cartridge) that is used to propel and deploy the recovery parachute.
(2) Severance Cutters that is used to cut away the drogue chute in all three modes of recovery. (The drogue chute is not deployed in MODE 1 but the bridle lines are cut anyway by the sequencer. This simplifies the sequencer by not adding the additional function needed to prevent the cutters from firing.) The cutters are fired from the # 5 and 6 P-leads from the Recovery Sequencer.
(1) Restraint Release Cartridge that is connected to the P-7 lead from the Recovery Sequencer. This component, when fired, rotates the bellcrank down and releases the lap belts, inertia reel straps, seat pan latch, and primary mortar disconnect pin.
(1) Emergency Mortar Cartridge that is connected to the P-11 lead from the Recovery Sequencer. This is used to fire the main chute mortar either in the event of a failure (or suspected failure) of the sequencer separation, or in the event that the crewman determines that it is in his/her best interest to separate from the seat earlier than the sequencer would.
(2) Reefing Line Cutters attached to the recovery parachute that fires 1.15 seconds after the recovery parachute is deployed. This delays the full inflation of the chute so the pilot does not get ripped in two by a rapid deceleration after it is deployed. Pilots just hate when they get ripped in two.
The Trajectory Divergence Rocket separates the two seats from each other in two place aircraft such as the F-15E and F-16D after ejection. It also functions to add a roll impulse to the seat in Mode 1 ejections that provides for greater separation between the crewman and the seat. The Divergence rocket is fired by P-9 of the recovery sequencer. Single seat F-16s are also fitted with a TDR as shown in this picture.
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:iconfirehawk171:
FIREHAWK171 Featured By Owner Jan 10, 2014
Very Cool, Nice work!
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:iconmidway2009:
Midway2009 Featured By Owner Jan 8, 2014  Hobbyist Traditional Artist
AWESOME!! :squee:
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:iconwarrenzoell:
WarrenZoell Featured By Owner Jan 8, 2014  Hobbyist Artisan Crafter
Ditto!
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:icongeneraltate:
GeneralTate Featured By Owner Jan 8, 2014  Hobbyist General Artist
Cool ! 
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