Extract from the book "The Battle for speed"
Was the "Soviet stealth"? Yes, it was, but only at the stage of experimental work - then did not have time: begun a so-called "reconstruction." Chief Designer of the "stealth" was a well-known NS Chernyakov in the Sukhoi Design Bureau, and it was a bad sign. NS Chernyakov was unlucky: he was the chief designer of the closed stage experimental work of the project's strategic cruise missile "The Tempest" at the Lavochkin Design Bureau prior to his conversion to the space theme, and then closed as the chief designer of the unique T-4 aircraft. The same fate befell the "Soviet stealth ', although, like all projects of Sukhoi, the aircraft was innovative. It was planned that this aircraft will be almost "electric", ie with a minimum of hydraulic and mechanical connections, and full integration of electronic control systems for engine and aircraft. The first copy of the aircraft have already begun to do in Novosibirsk. On the dimension of this plane was much smaller than the American B-2, ie "Soviet stealth" was not a strategic bomber.
Its power plant project was to consist of two engines a thrust of 18 tons of OKB-300 design, ie take-off weight of the aircraft was less than 100 tons.
Just at this time OKB-300, losing the position in the "mainstream" of the main air combat aircraft, tried to make a niche product - R79-300 engine for the taking off vertically Yak-141 naval aviation. R79-300 engine is radically different from their predecessors of the same design bureau. First, it was with a large two-planimetric for the military (speed), engine bypass ratio equal to 1. Secondly, he had a rotator at 90 ° nozzle, which in combination with the established front lift motor (RD36-35, or RD-38, Rybinsk design bureau), provided the aircraft vertical takeoff and landing. Third, unlike the pioneer engine vertical take-off "Pegasus" development "Bristol-Siddeley" R79-300 had an afterburner, which provided the supersonic flight of aircraft. In short, it was an innovative engine, in fact, an analogue of ultramodern F136 for the U.S. JSF F-35, "Lockheed Martin", only with greater mass - the number of turbine stages there were two times more than the current "American". The level of design development OKB-300 has traditionally been high, especially in the field-cooled turbine blades (original design was the construction of two halves payannoy blades with a high cooling efficiency), but as it turned out, not only in her. The design of the rotary nozzle has been so successful that in 1990 penniless years this development have bought, or, more accurately, "otorvalisrukami" Americans. Today it is the American F136 can be seen is the "Soviet" swivel nozzle. In general, the R79-300 engine is promised to be very promising, especially if it is also put on "Soviet stealth." But ... no luck - the Soviet Union "collapsed", and with it the powerful Soviet aviation industry.
The engine is "stealth" PO Sukhoi had to be established so-called "flat" (ie, the output section is not circular, and highly elongated rectangular, almost slit-shape) nozzle with thrust vectoring, screening direct infrared radiation from the turbine. Due to change the thrust vector through the nozzle deflection flat panels solved the eternal problem of separation of the nose landing gear during takeoff - the thrust was deflected ... up, creating the right time for the separation of the front chassis. This nozzle was made and passed flight tests of the Su-27. And with the NS Chernyakov personally met the author at work, and he made a strong impression on him, like many engineers Sukhoi.
But with the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 ended with a feast and thoughtless aviation industry (following the same madness MIC U.S.). Back in the late 1980s. going to build new factories of the aviation industry, in particular, a large engine plant in Ulyanovsk - marking the site has already been done. The obvious economic madness. Despite the fact that aviation technology at this time has become more complicated and has risen by an order compared to the 1930-mi's. and therefore required to manage the development deeply thought-out strategy, the thinking in the Soviet military-industrial complex remained the same, the tactical level. "Armies" were commanded, as a "shelf". Marine team for vessels coming wakefield systems, "turn all of a sudden" was used too often in the Soviet aviation industry.
When in the mid-seventies, President Carter's administration refused to fund the production of a new bomber, the B-1A, manufacturers began vying to offer the cheapest options for its replacement. In 1977 the firm General Dynamics offered heavy modification the proven front-line bomber, the F-111 - FB-111H. The car was supposed to equip the engines F101. The inner compartment is allowed to place up to 12 missiles SRAM. But the new U.S. administration opted for an improved version of the B-1 - B-1B, so the project FB-111H and remained on paper.
The domestic counterpart, the Su-24 was followed, almost behind his American brother. In the early eighties, the Design Bureau "Dry" were working on a new modification of the Su-24 - Su-24BM (big modification) with the AL-31F engines. Under the leadership of VF Marova conceptual design was developed, built full-scale mock-up aircraft. Draft project was successfully defended before the commission the Air Force. But in the early eighties, Simon has made the transfer of work on "Bombers-90" from the TsAGI EDO "pendant" (pilot plant Sukhoi Design Bureau), where this issue began to press the Su-24BM, already advancing difficult. Then supporters of the Su-24 was made a daring step - variable geometry wing of the Su-24BM has been replaced by fixed consoles with the influx, the plane was two-keel fins and future electronic equipment taken from the T-60C project. It should be noted that the idea of a fixed-wing has also been borrowed from the firm's leader General Dynamics. In 1983 he built a full-size model of this machine, but under pressure from Simon and Silaeva work was stopped with the promise of an early termination of designing a T-60C.
In 1985 ... have studied variants of the Su-24 mm ("small upgrade"). The first - an increase of 2,000 kg take-off weight and increased flight range by installing new, more powerful and economical AL-31F turbofan. The new aircraft featured an additional air inlet above the fuselage, which was due to increased air flow from the AL-31F. The second option is actively promoted by representatives of the Air Force. He called for an increase in flight range due to the overhead of conformal fuel tanks before it is used as the Americans on their F-16 (serial F-16s - approx. Paralay). One of the authors of the idea was V.R.Kovtun. However, work on the Su-24mm and not out of the stage of design research. Perhaps this was due to not quite good name of the machine: the local wags unscrambled abbreviation "MM" as "Stillborn Monster." Another version - "Mu-mu" (a dog, as we know, by order of the ladies, too, was drowned.) Perhaps the reason was much more "prosaic" - despite the fact that the Su-24M, unlike the Su-27IB, is capable of including the "supersonic" to perform low-altitude flight with a rounding of the terrain, favorable for the Bureau was to promote just soo -27IB, although the cost of operating even ordinary Su-27 is higher than the Su-24M ...
Finally, stopping the development of the Su-24BM firm to engage seriously in designing "ninetieth Bomber" T-60C (the object is 54?).
Thread the T-60 dates back to 1981 in the framework of the B-90 "Bomber ninetieth." The aircraft was designed for the installation of two engines of the P-79 (18500 kg), and later, P-179-300 or AL-41F (izd.20) with a thrust of 18,500 - 20,000 kgs.
At the time M.P.Simonov impressed by the success of the T-10C as it insisted that the concept of the new bomber was developed in TsAGI. High-class theorists "practical work" was a novelty. Using the achievements of strategic missile T-4MS, TsAGI flooded the project different "miracles."
Here is what Oleg wrote in his book Samoilovich "Near Dry" :
At the end of 1979 Simonov received Deputy Minister of Aviation Industry. Before Ivanov tried all means to prevent this appointment. Despite the fact that under the Simonov appointment he was able to negotiate with V. Kazakov appointing me chief designer, he predicted that if Simon will be a deputy, then our KB for the future are coming hard times. I, along with the factory director A. Ivanov tried to calm Zazhigin, assuring him that his fears are not baseless. Unfortunately, Eugene A. was right. While our government resolution has been given a modification of the Su-24, Su-24BM called (BM - great option). We have developed a conceptual design, built full-scale mock-up aircraft. This development was led by a leading designer and VF Marova. Draft project was successfully defended before the commission the Air Force, and an acceptance of preliminary design and layout is approved by the Air Force commander in chief of P. Kutahovym. There was only a signature of the Minister of Aviation Industry matching I. Silaeva. That was then, and interfered Simonov. He managed to convince the Minister that the Su-24BM - thing of the past, and we need to do a completely new aircraft. So at the urging of Simon's theme of the Su-24BM has been closed. When this happened, PA Kutakhov was furious. He came to our firm, along with Misha, MN. Ivanov was not, he was detained elsewhere. Commander Simon and I took. Simon began to report Kutahovu himself. He got angry, stood up and said that he is nothing more to do - he approved the act of defense of preliminary design and layout of the Su-24BM and the IAO shall begin to build this aircraft, but does not offer anything new. Simon ran the "Kremlin hospital" to ask for help from Silaeva. The Minister said that he immediately asked to come and stay Kutahova. The conflict has been repaid, but the Su-24BM was never built. Becoming a Deputy Minister, MP Simon put forward the idea that all new aircraft projects should be developed in TsAGI, and KB are required to implement these projects. As a "guinea pig" was selected our size. This is understandable, because all the other General designers instantly be given a "reversal of the gate." Such a project under the designation T-60 with a report on the conduct model tests in wind tunnels TsAGI was handed to us in 1981, and the Bureau began work on her (Chief Designer Nikolai Chernyak, a leading designer of projects Marov VF). Interestingly, the development of this project is almost completely copied our plane as T-4MS, with the exception of two new and completely absurd solutions. First - it is cleaning rotary wing consoles fully under the fuselage without taking into account the actual deformation of the wing. By offering such "experts" from the TsAGI found a complete lack of understanding of its structure. Second - is the use of variable engine bypass ratio on the basis of the so-called "double pipe" of the engine. And in this case, the stupidity of "lying on the surface", but for all of the top management was presented as our Soviet breakthrough in aviation technology. Especially since this engine was created in CB PA Kolosov and passed bench tests. It does not take into account only two factors: how the engine is "fit" into the plane, and what will be the output performance specifications. After careful consideration of the report of the TsAGI model airplane blowing in the tubes of T-106, T 112 and T-113, I was able to reject this arrangement. It turned out that the results of purging given in the final reports were falsified: the graph of the changes focus on the number of M initial starting point of the center of gravity of the aircraft was moved up by 3%. I immediately went to the chief of the 10th branch of TsAGI LM Shkadov and pointed to this discrepancy. In response Shkadov with a smile said: "Oleg, 3% is a trifle." Yes, a trifle, if you do not mind what it is allocated. And because it was related to the full length of the aircraft, equal to 40 m, these changes were equal to three percent of the center of gravity of the aircraft by 1200 mm. And this is meant that the layout of the aircraft must be carried out again. I am officially, in writing, TsAGI back their recommendations and asked for clarification. There was no answer. The epic of the T-60 - not only planted Simonov "pig." On his initiative, to us in these years was assigned to develop the bike, washing machines, machines for the packaging of powdered sugar.
Since then, it took 17 years. T-60 aircraft is still there and, as I understand it, there will be (instead created and is factory tested really great Su-34). But if it had not been discontinued development of the Su-24BM, the Air Force would be now in the ranks of 150-200 new cars, far exceeding the combat effectiveness of the armament of the Su-24M.
Under the leadership of Samoilovich, now the T-60C, turned into a single mode the aircraft is capable to break the target at a high cruising speed and high altitude. The appearance of this machine is similar to the TIR 70.1 KB MiG, but unlike this interceptor, the T-60C is equipped with an integrated radar system "Predator." The four compartments are 4 cruise missile long-range X-55. It is also possible and the external suspension. Emphasis was placed on reducing visibility and increasing aerodynamic plane, which in general has led to a record distance of 11,000 km. Onboard equipment developed under this theme was later used on the Su-34.
In 1985 due to a conflict with O.S.Samoylovich M.P.Simonovym transferred to work in the Mikoyan design bureau, along with him went to the same group of designers, see TIR .
New people took responsibility for the theme of "B-90", of course completely redrew the project. Having the index "object 54C" new machine combines the best of the predecessors of found solutions. Keeping the scheme "tailless" (with a maximum sweep the movable part) "the object of 54C" got a variable sweep wing, and lost some share in return received a stealth multi-mode, it is possible to fly as efficiently at high and at low altitude. Probably for the possibility of equipping the machine promising missiles now known as X-555 and H-101/102.
It was supposed to equip the "object of 54C" fashionable at the moment "chip", a system of active defense in the rearview radar and missile R-73, which are housed in a compartment loads with cruise missiles.
Shape similar to an airplane suddenly announced at the time the F-117 became more angular.
Vadim Lukaszewicz about the history of the "object 54".
I went to ... Affiliate Sukhoi Design Bureau in 1985, this was a serial plant, and almost every modification in one form or another was in the series. But when I moved to Moscow at the head office, I was simply amazed at the number of detailed projects which go into the basket. The impression was that "fires" only every fifth to tenth project.
I remember the cautious words of the Chief on "Object 54" (our unique bomber-Stealth) at a meeting: "If we can roll out the car ..."
Do not "when the car starts to fly," not "when we construct the plane", not "when the product goes into combat units," namely, "if we can roll out" of the hangar. By the way about the "object 54" - and "not rolled out" ... This is an amazing machine, an American B-2 just "resting", and still, after all, in 10-15 years (I retired from the "Dry" in 1992), on the plane - a single line anywhere!
Or another example. Before designing the well-known today, the aircraft with forward-swept p.37 "Berkut" (working drawings, it was called the Su-27km, which in itself speaks volumes), the project was completed with a full (!) A set of working documentation experienced single-engine airplane with a wing the reverse sweep C-22 (for other information C-22 - precursor S.32/37, two-engine "duck" - approx. paralay). And one of the solemn meeting (on the anniversary of some sort) General Mikhail P. Simonov, listing the achievements of EDB during the reporting period, so straight and said, "A fully completed the design with the release of a basket of working documentation of supersonic aircraft, equipped with forward-swept wing. These allowed to work to gain experience and allow us to move on. "
And in his work, and communicating with related departments, I often had to deal with designers complete apathy to any product - "yes it is still working on the cart ..."
Although in fact there were real "sweetie"! In addition to the aforementioned "object 54" can be called a working draft of a supersonic attack aircraft carried out in a "duck" - Su-37 (Chief Designer - Babak) to replace the Su-25.
... When I was still working at OKB "Dry", then went on several projects in parallel:
- Su-37 (a supersonic attack aircraft in a "duck." It looked like the Swedish "flu", which is constantly poked at all NTS. But the car was just a sight for sore eyes!)
- "Object 54";
- Su-27km (later C-32, now known as p.37 "Golden Eagle");
- Su-27B (the current Su-32).
So I once asked Antonov (then in the early 1990s, he was Deputy Head of Department 100, who is even slightly familiar with the Sukhoi Design Bureau, knows the role of the Antonov Design Bureau in the development of the last 30 years) of the machines' object 54 "and Su-27km, he replied:" 27km is a good plane, which in the design process tends to be just a good airplane. A "object 54" - this is a very good airplane, which is due to the latest requirements of the customer drifts from a very good to just a good airplane, but we resist it! "
Who knows - Antonov Bondarenko, along with "tied" T-10 (Su-27), and he was the actual author and the father not only of all modifications of the Su-27, but in general all the elaborations in the last 30 years of Prohibition.
And to understand the scale of assessments, I can say - the Su-27 (T-10C) - this is very good, and for example, a heavier tonnage of the Su-27K - just a good airplane. In the Sukhoi Design Bureau Antonov - unquestioned authority, so if he described the "object 54" as very good, it means that this is a unique, landmark aircraft.
As for the Su-32, which supposedly replaced the "object 54", the one thing completely new, specialized and optimized to the target plane, and another - a cheaper modification of a similar problem of the previous generation of aircraft ...
According to Overscan, the project holding "Leninist" in 1987, developed an integrated set of on-board "Predator" B004, and later installed on the Su-34. Information from PFAR front view, rear view radar, IR - system TV - system, a complex of electronic countermeasures, and communication channels, and processed by the computer in a digestible form is displayed on a widescreen monitor in the cockpit. The system is fully automated.
Forward looking radar can detect small ground target at a distance of 30 km, aerial target class "fighter" at a distance of 90 km, radiocontrast major goal - 250 km.
The wavelength of 3 cm, the peak power of 14 kW. Antenna Weight - 150 lbs., Field of view 120 degrees.
... Each of these projects, T-6BM, "the object of 54" and "object 54C" tried to start a series at the Novosibirsk aircraft plant. In 1985 the factory was built stand the fuel system and a few stands of "object 54" for testing of other systems. Later, the project is closed, and the stands dismantled.
Subject: "Object 54" was discontinued by order of Boris Yeltsin in 1992. Officially, her grief was presented as yet another peace initiative in the negotiations on arms limitation ...
In 1994 ... during zhutchayshey devastation, inflation and depression is the launch of a new project "object 54C." The configuration is similar to the nose of the figure c60.gif , at the tail t54.gif . In the form in terms of cleaning rotary wing panels almost completely under the fuselage in the retracted position, in terms of console form a single surface with a stabilizer. Air intakes on the upper surface of the fuselage. The nozzles - flat, with a thrust reverser. Refueling boom evolved parallelogram front of the cockpit and a fully closed doors. Radioabsorbing provided coverage. During 1994 - 1995's design went into production and launch stands: the fuel system, "Marabou" - the forward fuselage (under the code "Marabou" system design was carried out so-called "plasma stealth" - paralay), flat nozzle. The plant was lofting linking, preparation of production. Against the background of the plant, and a universal after perestroika poverty, painful run of the Su-34, it looked ridiculous, vain attempts of the last relics of the former Soviet aircraft industry ...
(It should be noted that at about the same time, an aircraft factory "Sokol" ran in the production of the MiG 1.42. Apparently these facts are due to one reason - paralay)
In 1985 he published one of the first versions of the future fighter ATF, Peter Bytovskim presented pictures of T-60C almost mimicking this variant ATF.
Based on the above it follows that a prototype of the "object 54C" yet started construction at the Novosibirsk Aviation Plant and possibly waiting in the wings when the bomber would be, if not then at least "prototype." Only problem is compounded by the lack of engines AL-41F (izd.20) whose development was discontinued in the early nineties.
Projected performance long-range bomber "object 54C":
length of 36.0 m
span 22.0 - 31.6 m
wing area 330 square meters
Wing loading 265 - 297 kg / m
Top view of 343.5 m / 346.2 m (low sweep)
Side view of 72 sq.m
Front view of 22 sq.m
Volume of 164 cubic meters
Tank number 1 (influx) 21.95 x 8.17 x 2.87 = 8 cubic meters x 2 = 16 cubic meters
Tank number 2 (above the niche chassis) 2.6 x 3.4 x 1.26 = 3.13 cubic meters x 2 = 6.25 cubic meters
Buck number 3 (between the motor) 5.0 x 10 x 1.93 = 4.59 cubic meters x 2 = 9.17 cubic meters
The tank number 4 (under the keels) 9.3 x 3.1 x 1.0 = 3.1 cubic meters x 2 = 6.2 cubic meters
The tank number 5 (wing) 19.34 x 3 x 1 = 3.87 cubic meters x 2 = 7.74 cubic meters
The total volume of 16 + 6.25 + 9.17 + 6.2 + 7.74 = 45.36 cubic meters
Weight of fuel (at least) 45.36 cubic meters x 785 kg / cu. = 35 600 kg
Maximum 98 000 kg
Normal 87 500 kg
empty 50000 kg
fuel 37000 kg
Load 17500 - 28000 kg
thrust AL-41F engines:
afterburner 20,000 kgs
Maximum 15 800 kg
Working 12 400 kg
traction motors P 79 M - 300:
afterburner 18,000 kgs
Maximum 16 000 kg
Working 12 000 kg
maximum 2,100 km / h
Cruising 1780 km / h
subsonic 11,000 km
supersonic 5000 - 7000 km
Subsonic 4000 km
Supersonic 1750 km
Complex B-90 + CR-101 X 9500 km
The original layout of the aerodynamic engineers have tried to introduce Tupolev, developing a promising bomber to replace Tu-22M3:
"... In 1972, the Bureau for Naval Aviation offered radically modernize the Tu-22M. Project received the designation" 45M ". Planned to equip the machine with two engines NK-25. Its aerodynamic design reminiscent of an American reconnaissance SR-71. Impact weapons - two SD-X-45. Further technical proposal of work, "45M" did not go because it was not the modernization and creation of new aircraft against which strongly objected to guide the production plant. "
Later, something like that came from the pen of the Sukhoi Design Bureau, it is true in some reduced form. The Journal Aerospace Review published a photograph of a model airplane is obviously based on studies for "45M", "object 54C" and Su-34. His alleged characteristics:
length of 5.25 m
span 18.5 - 23.4 m
wing area 68 sq. m
Maximum 62 500 kg
empty 30,000 kg
22,500 kg of fuel
load 10 000 kg
thrust AL-31F engines:
afterburner 12,500 kg - 13,600 kg
Maximum 7600 kgs
maximum 2,100 km / h
subsonic 8,000 km